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history expansion

Reuse and expand the shell history in sh, bash, zsh, rbash and ksh. More information: https://www.gnu.org/software/bash/manual/html_node/History-Interaction.

  • Run the previous command:

!!

  • Run the previous command as root:

sudo !!

  • Run a command with the last argument of the previous command:

{{command}} !$

  • Run a command with the first argument of the previous command:

{{command}} !^

  • Run the command n lines back in the history:

!-{{n}}

  • Run the most recent command starting with string:

!{{string}}

  • Run the previous command, replacing string1 with string2:

^{{string1}}^{{string2}}^

  • Perform a history expansion, but print the command that would be run instead of actually running it:

{{!-n}}:p